If you have receptive anal sex, there's a diagnostic test that should be on your radar but probably isn't. The anal Pap test is a screening test that looks for the early signs of anal/rectal cancer in men and women. Just like throat cancer, anal cancer is one of the less well known possible consequences of HPV. Individuals who are HIV positive are at particularly high risk of disease, and should consider being screened on a regular basis. The anal Pap test is closely related to the cervical Pap smear used for women.